MALDI mass spectrometry imaging: A cutting-edge tool for fundamental and clinical histopathology
Longuespée R. 1,2, Casadonte R. 2, Kriegsmann M. 3, Pottier C. 4, Picard de Muller G. 5, Delvenne P. 4, Kriegsmann J. 1,6, De Pauw E. 1.
1. Proteopath GmbH, Trier, Germany.
2. Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, GIGA-Research, GIGA-Cancer, University of Liège , Liège, Belgium.
3. Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
4. Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, GIGA-Cancer, Department of Pathology, University of LiÇùge, LiÇùge, Belgium.
5. MALDI Imaging Service Department, Imabiotech, Parc EurasantÇ¸, Loos, France.
6. MVZ for Histology, Cytology and Molecular Diagnostics Trier, Trier, Germany.
Histology; Imaging; MALDI; Mass spectrometry; Omics; Pathology.
Histopathological diagnoses has been done in the last century based on hematoxylin and eosin staining. These methods were complemented by histochemistry, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular techniques. Mass spectrometry (MS) methods allow the thorough examination of various biocompounds in extracts and tissue sections. Today, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), and especially matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging links classical histology and molecular analyses. Direct mapping is a major advantage of the combination of molecular profiling and imaging. MSI can be considered as a cutting edge approach for molecular detection of proteins, peptides, carbohydrates, lipids and small molecules in tissues. This review covers the detection of various biomolecules in histopathological sections by MSI. Proteomic methods will be introduced into clinical histopathology within the next few years.