Mechanisms of innate events during skin reaction following intradermal injection of seasonal influenza vaccine


The skin plays a crucial role in host defences against microbial attack and the innate cells must provide the immune system with sufficient information to organize these defences. This unique feature makes the skin a promising site for vaccine administration. Although cellular innate immune events during vaccination have been widely studied, initial events remain poorly understood. Our aim is to determine molecular biomarkers of skin innate reaction after intradermal (i.d.) immunization. Using an ex vivo human explant model from healthy donors, we investigated by NanoLC-MS/MS analysis and MALDI-MSI imaging, to detect innate molecular events (lipids, metabolites, proteins) few hours after i.d. administration of seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). This multimodel approach allowed to identify early molecules differentially expressed in dermal and epidermal layers at 4 and 18 h after TIV immunization compared with control PBS. In the dermis, the most relevant network of proteins upregulated were related to cell-to-cell signalling and cell trafficking. The molecular signatures detected were associated with chemokines such as CXCL8, a chemoattractant of neutrophils. In the epidermis, the most relevant networks were associated with activation of antigen-presenting cells and related to CXCL10. Our study proposes a novel step-forward approach to identify biomarkers of skin innate reaction.

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